The natural history collection, a separate collection, is located in a room on the upper floor of the northern wing of Heidecksburg Palace and designed in the way as it may have looked like in its heyday at the end of the 18th century. The collections consisting of the three classic kingdoms of nature (stone, plant and animal kingdom) were originally displayed in seven rooms of Ludwigsburg Palace, the Prince's residence of Friedrich Karl of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, the later count and founder of the natural history cabinet. The number of single objects amounts to several thousand. More items (e.g. bugs, butterflies and fossils) are hidden inside the drawers. The bulging, confusing abundance, but nevertheless, aesthetically presented collections including the furnishing was typical for natural history collections of the 17th and 18th century.
The museum also displays a magazine with birds and mammals, an animal geography exhibition, an outline of the history of the collection, which is over 250 years old, and the exhibition »From collecting to knowledge of nature«.